Conflict Dictionary

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Incitement to genocide -  ‘Incitement’ means encouraging or persuading a person to commit an offense by way of communication. This communication can happen through broadcasts, publications, speeches, images or drawings. Moreover, incitement to genocide under international law has to be both ‘public’ and ‘direct’. ‘Public’ meaning that it is communicated to a number of individuals in a public place, or through mass media. The ‘direct’ aspect of incitement to genocide is much more difficult to prove as one needs to prove that both the speaker and the listener understand that the form of communication was a call to action. The difficulty in proving the directness lies in the fact that most genocidal regimes use euphuisms when talking about the (possible) killing of a victim group. Moreover, incitement to genocide can be prosecuted even if genocide was never perpetrated.
International Court of Justice -  The International Court of Justice, or Cour Internationale de Justice, is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. It was established in June 1945 by the Charter of the United Nations and began work in April 1946. The Court’s role is to settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted to it by States and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized United Nations organs.
- Synonyms: ICJ, CIJ
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia -  The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, seated in The Hague, was established in 1993 by the United Nation Security Council. The Council was thereby following a report by a Commission of Experts which described grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and other violations of international humanitarian law in the countries of the former Yugoslavia. This Tribunal was the first war crimes court established by the UN and the first international war crimes tribunal since the Nuremberg and Tokyo tribunals. The mandate of the ICTY is to bring to justice those responsible for serious violations of humanitarian law committed in the former Yugoslavia since 1991. On that note, the Tribunal has indicted 161 persons with ongoing procedures against 20 accused – 16 before the Appeals Chamber en 4 currently at trial. These last four include the so-called ‘big fish’ Goran Hadžić, Radovan Karadžić, Ratko Mladić, and Vojislav Šešelj.  
- Synonyms: ICTY, Yugoslav Tribunal
International Holocaust Remembrance Day -  The 27th of January, the date that the Red Army liberated Auschwitz concentration camp in 1945, is since 2005 remembered every year as International Holocaust Remembrance Day. It was decided in a resolution adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in November 2005 to designate this date to commemorate all victims of the Holocaust (“which resulted in the murder of one third of the Jewish people, along with countless members of other minorities”). In the resolution, Member States are urged to develop educational programmes on the Holocaust and are encouraged that those sites that served as Nazi camps will be preserved. Many countries followed to commemorate the Holocaust on this date, including the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.
Islamic State -  The Islamic state (IS),  also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), and al-Dawlah al-Islamīyah fī al-ʻIrāq wa-al-Shām (DAESH), is a radical islamist group that has seized large territory in eastern Syria and parts of northern and western Iraq. The goal of the group is to establish a 'caliphate': a state ruled by one political and religious leader, in accordance to the Islamic law, or 'Sharia'. Although the state is currently confined to Iraq and Syria, it is the goal of the Islamic State to take over Jordan, Lebanon and to 'free' Palesine. The islamist group receives both mental support and jihadist fighters from Muslims across the world. True supporters must first swear allegiance to the leader of the Islamic State - Ibrahim Awad Ibrahim Ali al-Badri al-Samarrai, better known as Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi.
- Synonyms: The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant , The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, al-Dawlah al-Islamīyah fī al-ʻIrāq wa-al-Shām