Conflict Dictionary

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Age of apology -  The term referring to the increase of reparations in (global) politics, as a way of overcoming injustices from the past. List of official public apologies see here: http://www.humanrightscolumbia.org/sites/default/files/documents/ahda/political_apologies.pdf
Aggressive response Benjamin Netanyahu -  A day after the UN’s adoption of the Resolution condemning Israeli settlement construction, Netanyahu pledged to exact a ‘diplomatic and economic prince’ from countries who acted against Israel. Netanyahu criticised the Obama administration for not vetoing the Security Council’s measure and indicated he would work with  the new president, Donald Trump, to rescind it. Netanyahu used the words ‘distorted’, delusional’ and ‘absurd’ to describe the resolution.
Al-Shabab -  “Al-Shabab means The Youth in Arabic. It emerged as the radical youth wing of Somalia's now-defunct Union of Islamic Courts. It is banned as a terrorist group by both the US and the UK and is believed to have between 7,000 and 9,000 fighters.” (‘Who are Somalia’s al-shabab?’ 3 April 2015 BBC News)
Antonov bombers -  "The vast majority of aerial attacks are by Antonov aircraft, Russian cargo planes that Khartoum is reliably reported to be adding to its current fleet. It is crucial here to understand what an Antonov "bomber" is: the Antonov is a Russian-made cargo plane, and in no way designed for use as an attack aircraft. There are no bomb sighting mechanisms; there are no bomb racks or bays; typically, crude (and cheap) barrel "bombs" are filled with scrap metal, unusable ordnance, and other shrapnel-producing materials, as well as an explosive medium---and are simply rolled out the back cargo bay. These bombs explode not with a large blast capability (and often do not explode at all), but have enough force to generate a hail of deadly shrapnel in all directions. Moreover, for protection against ground fire and anti-aircraft fire, the SAF Antonovs typically fly at altitudes of about 5,000 meters---far too high to permit any kind of militarily purposeful aerial targeting. They are not by nature a military weapon, but a tool for civilian destruction and terror." Description by Eric Reeves from the website: http://www.rovingbandit.com/2012/04/how-sudanese-bombers-work.html
Arab Spring -  Started at Caïro's Tahrir Square on 18 December 2010, the Arab Spring is a wave of non-violent protests in the Arab world against its oppressive regimes. By 2015, rulers have been forced from power in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya and Yemen. In Bahrain and Syria, civil uprisings/wars have started. Other countries that known major protests are Algeria, Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait and Morocco.
Asylum-seeker -  The 1951 Refugee Convention defines a refugee as someone who is "owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality, and is unable to, or owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country." In other words, such a person fears to be tortured, or even murdered, if he or she stays within their country of origin and therefore has to cross an international border. An asylum-seeker is someone who says he or she is a refugee, but whose claim has not yet been definitively evaluated. For more information, please consult the website of UNHCR.
Ba'ath Party (Iraq) -  The Ba’ath party (Ba’ath meaning: renaissance or resurrection) in Iraq was founded in April 1947. Its ideology mixed Arab nationalism with socialism and anti-Imperialism. In 1952 it merged with the Arab Socialist Party to form the Arab Socialist Baath Party. This was also the year in which Iraq’s regional branch of the Baath party was founded. Initially the party held a majority of Shia Muslims, but slowly got dominated by Sunnis. In 1963 an internal coup within the Baath party took place, in which a group named the Regional Branch seized power over the party. Saddam Hussein was among its leaders.
Beit El -  An Israeli settlement located in the Binyamin Region of the West Bank. It is an orthodox Jewish town. The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank illegal under international law.
Benjamin Netanyahu -  Benjamin "Bibi" Netanyahu (Oct, 21 1949) is an Iraeli politician and the current Prime Minister of Israel. Political party: Likud, the major center-right political party in Israel.
Caliphate -  An Islamic government, led by a caliph. The Caliph is considered a successor of the prophet Mohammed and is chosen by a shura council. He claims Mohammed's political heritage. In addition to the traditional concept of a caliphate, a worldwide caliphate has recently been introduced by Islamic extremists. This worldwide caliphate is a borderless political order in which everyone lives under strict political, religious and military Muslim rule.
Cultural genocide -  Cultural genocide, or ethnocide, is the destruction of a group by annihilating their culture. Such measures aimed to interrupt the cultural reproduction of a people are an integral part of a genocidal plan, such as the forced policy of deculturation and Germanic reculturation of parts annexed by the Third Reich during the Second World War. The drafters of the 1948 Genocide Convention considered the use of the term, but eventually left it out of the final draft.
- Synonyms: Ethnocide
Cultural Identity -  The definition of groups or individuals - by themselves or others - in terms of cultural or subcultural categories - including ethnicity, nationality, language, religion, and gender -. (Oxford Reference)
Dabiq -  Dabiq is the name of a place in Syria where, according to the Judgement Day prophecy as mentioned in the Hadith, the final battle will take place between the Muslims and the Roman Empire (i.e. the West). When this battle has taken place, the Mahdi will return and bring victory on those who oppose the Sharia. Note that the name of this place is the same name of ISIS’ online magazine, which highlights ISIS’ goals in bringing victory and restoring Islam’s golden age in the form of the new Caliphate.
Dayton Peace Agreements -  The American-led Dayton Peace Agreements, signed in November 1995, divided Bosnia and Herzegovina into two entities. 49% of the Bosnian territory remained Serbian (the Republika Srpska) and 51% would belong to the Bosniak-Croat federation (the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina). The presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina, following the Agreements, is a three-person rotating institution, where each of the main ethnic groups elects a representative to the presidency. Under the relatively weak central government there are two more powerful entity governments, the Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. An elaborate system of controls ensures that each ethnic group has a veto. This is an important part of the agreement since competing memories of the war and a profound lack of trust within and between the three ethnic groups are still strong.
- Synonyms: Dayton
Dehumanization -  Dehumanization is the denial of humanness of a category of people. All languages and cultures require classification – we distinguish and classify between people (us versus them). Through symbolization, we name and classify these categories, for instance; the Dutch are tall, white skinned and blond, they wear clogs and ride bikes. Once these categories and symbols are combined with dehumanization, these categories are denied their humanity. For instance: “these tall, blond, clog-wearing and bike-riding people are a poisonous to our society”. (please see also: Gregory Stanton – Ten Stages of Genocide 2013)
Development aid -  Development aid is  concentrated on sustainability. The goal is to create a livelihood on local level. It often involves long-term projects.
Diaspora Jews -  Diaspora is Greek for 'dispersion'. Diaspora Jews refers to those Jews living outside the land of Israel. The Hebrew word is Tefutsot.
Dutch Asylum Procedure - Reasons for Rejection -  In the Netherlands, an application for asylum may be refused for several reasons:
  • The person in question was previously in another European member state where you could have applied for asylum before you came to the Netherlands, or if you have already requested asylum in a European member state other than the Netherlands.
  • The person in question has previously applied for asylum in the Netherlands and no new relevant facts have since come to light.
  • The person in question constitutes a risk to public order and national security.
  • The person in question has provided incorrect information.
See for the website of IND for more information.  
Eichmann trial - 

After the Second World War, Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann (Lieutenant-Colonel in the SS and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust) fled from Austria and made his way to Argentina where he lived under the name Ricardo Klement. In May 1960, Israeli Security Service agents seized Eichmann in Argentina and took him to Jerusalem for trial in an Israeli court. The Eichmann trial aroused international interest, bringing Nazi atrocities to the forefront of world news. Testimonies of Holocaust survivors, especially those of ghetto fighters such as Zivia Lubetkin, generated interest in Jewish resistance. The trial prompted a new openness in Israel; many Holocaust survivors felt able to share their experiences as the country confronted this traumatic chapter. Israeli attorney general Gideon Hausner signed a bill of indictment against Eichmann on 15 counts, including crimes against the Jewish people and crimes against humanity. Following a widely publicised trial in Israel, Eichmann was found guilty of war crimes and hanged in 1962.

Eretz Yisrael -  Literally meaning: "The Holy Land of Israel".
Ethnic cleansing -  Ethnic cleansing is the expulsion of unwanted populations through terror tactics such as looting, rape, murder, the burning of homes, and the destruction of religious and cultural objects. This, too, is a contested concept as some have claimed it to be a euphemism for genocide.
Evasive responses -  Amongst others: Jill Stein’s attempt to recount the election results in Wisconsin, Michigan and Pennsylvania; several anti-Trump marches in the United States; the hope that the Electoral College might obstruct Trump’s nomination after all when one Republican Elector announced his refusal to vote for Trump.
Famine -  "UN and food organisations define famine as when more than 30 percent of children under age five suffer from acute malnutrition and mortality rates are two or more deaths per 10,000 people every day".  
Genocide by attrition -  A genocide that does not take place by targeted killings. But by a continuing process (can take years) of destroying farms and village to deprive a specific group of people from food and income, which can ultimately lead starvation.
Hadith -  A collection of the teachings, deeds and saying of the prophet Muhammed. The Hadith is based on spoken reports that circulated after the death of Muhammed.
Holocaust - 

This was the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. "Holocaust" is a word of Greek origin meaning "sacrifice by fire." The Nazis, who came to power in Germany in January 1933, believed that Germans were "racially superior" and that the Jews, deemed "inferior," were an alien threat to the so-called German racial community. During the era of the Holocaust, German authorities also targeted other groups because of their perceived "racial inferiority": Roma (Gypsies), the disabled, and some of the Slavic peoples (Poles, Russians, and others). Other groups were persecuted on political, ideological, and behavioral grounds, among them Communists, Socialists, Jehovah's Witnesses and homosexuals.

Incitement to genocide -  ‘Incitement’ means encouraging or persuading a person to commit an offense by way of communication. This communication can happen through broadcasts, publications, speeches, images or drawings. Moreover, incitement to genocide under international law has to be both ‘public’ and ‘direct’. ‘Public’ meaning that it is communicated to a number of individuals in a public place, or through mass media. The ‘direct’ aspect of incitement to genocide is much more difficult to prove as one needs to prove that both the speaker and the listener understand that the form of communication was a call to action. The difficulty in proving the directness lies in the fact that most genocidal regimes use euphuisms when talking about the (possible) killing of a victim group. Moreover, incitement to genocide can be prosecuted even if genocide was never perpetrated.
International Court of Justice -  The International Court of Justice, or Cour Internationale de Justice, is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. It was established in June 1945 by the Charter of the United Nations and began work in April 1946. The Court’s role is to settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted to it by States and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized United Nations organs.
- Synonyms: ICJ, CIJ
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia -  The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, seated in The Hague, was established in 1993 by the United Nation Security Council. The Council was thereby following a report by a Commission of Experts which described grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and other violations of international humanitarian law in the countries of the former Yugoslavia. This Tribunal was the first war crimes court established by the UN and the first international war crimes tribunal since the Nuremberg and Tokyo tribunals. The mandate of the ICTY is to bring to justice those responsible for serious violations of humanitarian law committed in the former Yugoslavia since 1991. On that note, the Tribunal has indicted 161 persons with ongoing procedures against 20 accused – 16 before the Appeals Chamber en 4 currently at trial. These last four include the so-called ‘big fish’ Goran Hadžić, Radovan Karadžić, Ratko Mladić, and Vojislav Šešelj.  
- Synonyms: ICTY, Yugoslav Tribunal
International Holocaust Remembrance Day -  The 27th of January, the date that the Red Army liberated Auschwitz concentration camp in 1945, is since 2005 remembered every year as International Holocaust Remembrance Day. It was decided in a resolution adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in November 2005 to designate this date to commemorate all victims of the Holocaust (“which resulted in the murder of one third of the Jewish people, along with countless members of other minorities”). In the resolution, Member States are urged to develop educational programmes on the Holocaust and are encouraged that those sites that served as Nazi camps will be preserved. Many countries followed to commemorate the Holocaust on this date, including the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.
Islamic State -  The Islamic state (IS),  also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), and al-Dawlah al-Islamīyah fī al-ʻIrāq wa-al-Shām (DAESH), is a radical islamist group that has seized large territory in eastern Syria and parts of northern and western Iraq. The goal of the group is to establish a 'caliphate': a state ruled by one political and religious leader, in accordance to the Islamic law, or 'Sharia'. Although the state is currently confined to Iraq and Syria, it is the goal of the Islamic State to take over Jordan, Lebanon and to 'free' Palesine. The islamist group receives both mental support and jihadist fighters from Muslims across the world. True supporters must first swear allegiance to the leader of the Islamic State - Ibrahim Awad Ibrahim Ali al-Badri al-Samarrai, better known as Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi.
- Synonyms: The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant , The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, al-Dawlah al-Islamīyah fī al-ʻIrāq wa-al-Shām
Knesset -  Located in the capital Jerusalem, the Knesset is the parliament of Israel.
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact -  Names after Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov and German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was a Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union. It was signed on 23 August 1939 and it stated a guarantee of non-belligerence towards the other and that none would ally itself with the other's enemies. It also included a secret protocol that divided the territories of Romania, Poland, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia and Finland between the German and Soviet "spheres of influence". Less than 2 weeks after the signing of the pact, Germany invaded Poland and started the Second World War.
Mujahideen -  Mujahideen is the plural of 'mujahid', the term for a person in jihad - an Arabic word derived from the same root as mujahideen, meaning 'to strive' or 'to struggle'. The term is most frequently used in reference to the self named Afghan mujahideen, guerilla fighters who fought against the Soviet army from 1979-1989. However, the term has become more popular as a synonym for 'jihadist' since the phenomenon of radical Islamic forces have become more widespread in the wars in Iraq and in Afghanistan.
- Synonyms: Mujahedeen
Number of stateless persons in the Netherlands -  No statistical material is available on the number of illegal and unregistered stateless persons in the Netherlands; they remain completely invisible. Worldwide, relatively few countries have accurately identified the extent of statelessness on their territories, creating an information gap. UNHCR estimates that 10 million people in the world are presently stateless. See this report by UNHCR for more information
Protracted Refugee Situation -  The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) defines "protracted refugee situations" as involving groups of 25,000 people or more who have been in exile for over five years. UNHCR has identified protracted refugee situations as those "in which refugees find themselves in a long-lasting and intractable state of limbo. Their lives may not be at risk, but their basic rights and essential economic, social, and psychological needs remain unfulfilled after years in exile."
Refugee -  The 1951 Refugee Convention defines a refugee as someone who is "owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality, and is unable to, or owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country." In other words, such a person fears to be tortured, or even murdered, if he or she stays within their country of origin and therefore has to cross an international border. An asylum-seeker is someone who says he or she is a refugee, but whose claim has not yet been definitively evaluated. For more information, please consult the website of UNHCR.
Refugees with a temporary residence permit -  Asylum is regulated by the Aliens Act 2000, which includes the following categories of individuals as eligible for protection: Article 29:                 
  1. A residence permit for a fixed period as mentioned in Article 28 may be granted to an alien:
(…)
  1. who is a Convention refugee (the 1951 Refugee  Convention determines that someone is a refugee when s/he has a  "well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country")
  2. who has shown substantial grounds for believing that s/he, if returned to his or her country of origin, would face a real risk of 1°. the death penalty or execution; 2°. torture or inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment in the country of origin; or 3°. a serious and individual threat to a civilian's life or person by reason of indiscriminate violence in situations of international or internal armed conflict;
When a person meets these criteria, he or she will receive temporary residence status. After five years of temporary residence in the Netherlands, this person is required to demonstrate that s/he knows the Dutch language and society. If these requirements are met, he or she will receive permanent resident status.  
Relief aid or emergency aid -  Relief aid or emergency aid focus on direct needs of people after or during a disaster or violent conflict: water, food, medical assistance, hygiene.  An example would be the distribution of food packets.
Reparation -  "The essential principle contained in the actual notion of an illegal act is that reparation must, as far as possible, wipe out all the consequences of the illegal act and re-establish the situation which would, in all probability, have existed if that act had not been committed." (Quote from the Chorzow Factory case at the Permanent Court of International Justice)
Resettlement -  The option of resettlement is only available to a small minority of refugees. In 2014, the UNHCR launched appeals to member states to volunteer to take at least 30,000 Syrian refugees by the end of 2014 and then another 100,000 for 2015 and 2016. Thus far, the international community has not been very forthcoming in meeting these targets and recently the UNHCR has been especially critical of the EU for having accepted only 124,000 refugees, less than 4 percent of all Syrian refugees.
RPF Policy of National Unity and Reconciliation -  Ever since the genocide in Rwanda ended on July 4, 1994, the main task of the RPF-led government has been to deal with its legacies. With the aim to rebuild an ethnically disintegrated society, the RPF established The National Unity and Reconciliation Commission (NURC), a national institution that has assisted the government in restoring tranquility, erasing the negative consequences of the genocide, combatting discrimination and establishing a feeling of national unity. Fundamental to the NURC’s approach to unification has been the discourse on pre-colonial unity. This discourse focuses on how Rwanda thrived in peace and unity during pre-colonial times. In this manner, the NURC has tried to sensitize the population for the existence of only one Rwandan identity.
RPF-led government -  The Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) has been the ruling political party in Rwanda ever since the genocide ended in 1994. Its current president, Paul Kagame, was also the leader of the rebel organization that defeated the genocidal government. Therefore, many Rwandans appreciate him as the savior of the country. Because the main purpose of RPF has been to restore unity in Rwanda, the government established “The National Unity and Reconciliation Commission” (NURC) in 1999: a national institution aimed at assisting the government in restoring tranquility, erasing the negative consequences of the genocide, combatting discrimination and establishing a feeling of national unity. In 2003, the RPF established a new constitution and, for the first time, held national elections. The consensus amongst Rwandans in favour of Paul Kagame and the RPF seemed great. In 2003, Paul Kagame and the RPF received 95,1 percent of the votes and in 2010, the same party received 93,08 percent. On the one hand, this supposedly successful political transition to democracy has been highly praised by the international community. On the other hand, there has been a lot of criticism on the authoritarianism of the RPF, vocalized mainly by international scholars and NGOs. This criticism is grounded in the idea that there has never been a successful transition to democracy: only a transition from one authoritarian regime into another.
safe areas -  Cities and territories that are placed under the protection of the UN peacekeeping, because of humanitarian reasons.
Sharia -  Sharia or Sharia law is the Islamic law system, derived from the Quran and the Hadith. Sharia law deals with crimes, politics and economics as well as personal matter such as sexual intercourse, hygience, dressing, diet and prayer. Several Islamic countries have applied Sharia as their main source of legislation, among which: Saudi-Arabia, Iran, Pakistan, Sudan, Afghanistan and the UAE. A lot of controversy revolves around Sharia law as to whether it is compatible with secular forms of government in terms of human rights, freedom of speech and women's rights.
Shia Islam -  Shia Islam is a faction in Islam that follows the prophet Muhammed's son in law and cousin Ali as his rightful successor. Shia Muslims comprise between 11 and 14% of the total number of Muslims in the Middle East and North Africa. The Shia coalition in the Middles East is led by Iran, where Shia Muslims are the majority and Hezbollah in Lebanon. Shia Muslims have been in conflict with Sunni Muslims since the death of Muhammed in 632, when they found themselves in a dispute about Muhammed's rightful successor, which Sunnis believe to be Muhammed's father-in-law Abu Bakr. Shia Islam is divided into three groups: Twelvers, Ismails and Zaidis, of which the Twelvers are the majority and most influential.
Shoah -  The biblical word Shoah (which has been used to mean “destruction” since the Middle Ages) became the standard Hebrew term for the murder of European Jewry as early as the early 1940s. The word Holocaust, which came into use in the 1950s as the corresponding term, originally meant a sacrifice burnt entirely on the altar. The selection of these two words with religious origins reflects recognition of the unprecedented nature and magnitude of the events. Many understand Holocaust as a general term for the crimes and horrors perpetrated by the Nazis; others go even farther and use it to encompass other acts of mass murder as well. Consequently, the Hebrew word Shoah is often used to refer to the persecution of European Jewry exclusively (in other languages as well).  
Six-day-war -  The Six Day war was fought between 5-10 June 1967. Israeli forces fought against Egypt, Jordan and Syria. Israel more than doubled its size during these six days, capturing east Jerusalem and the Palestinian territories – the West Bank and Gaza – as well as the Golan Heights and Sinai.
Soviet Union -  The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) or shortened to the Soviet Union, was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that was founded on 30 December 1922 and existed until 26 December 1991. The Soviet Union has its roots in the Russian Revolution of 1917, which overthrew the Russian Empire and ended its Tsarist Rule. After the Revolution, the Bolsheviks (the majority faction of the Socialist Party, led my Vladimir Lenin) led a second revolution that established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic. After a civil war between pro-revolution Reds and counter-revolution Whites,  the Communists formed the Soviet Union in 1922 with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasion, Uktrainian, and Belarussian republics. After the Second World War, the Soviets occupied territory conquered from Axis forces in Central and Eastern Europe, which became the satellite states of the Eastern Bloc.
Sunni Islam -  Sunni Islam is the largest branch of Islam, with a majority of 87 to 90% of all Muslims. Fundamentalist Islamic movements such as Wahhabism, Salafism and Takfiris have Sunni orientations. Shia Muslims have been in conflict with Sunni Muslims since the death of Muhammed in 632, when they found themselves in a dispute about Muhammed's rightful successor, which Sunnis believe to be Muhammed's father-in-law Abu Bakr.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) -  “The European Court of Human Rights is an international court set up in 1959. It rules on individual or state applications alleging violations of the civil and political rights set out in the European Convention on Human Rights. Since 1998 it has sat as a full-time court and individuals can apply to it directly” (Official website of the Council of Europe).The Court is stationed in Strasbourg, in France.
The International Convention on Civil and Political Rights -  The International Convention on Civil and Political Rights was adopted by the United Nation assembly on 16 December 1966 and entered into force on 23 March 1976. The Convention obligated states that signed it  to respect the civil and political rights of individuals, including the right to life, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, electoral rights and the right of a fair trial. The United Nations Human Rights Committee monitor the compliance of states with the Convention.
The Northern government in the capital Khartoum (Sudan) -  Sudan became independent in 1956 after a conflict over power sharing  of the colonized country by two states: Great- Britain and  Egypt. As part of the English tactic to avoid Egypt from obtaining more influence in Sudan, it granted Sudan’s independence to the Northern Sudanese elites -  who identified themselves as Muslim and Arabic. Because these Northern politicians could use the British support as their power base to achieve independence, they did not have to make any approaches to the South to gain their support. As a result the North-Sudanese could culturally suppress and neglect the Southern regions.
The Security Council -  The Security Council is the United Nations' most powerful organ. Its primary responsibility is the protection of international peace and security. It is very powerful because it can interfere the right of sovereignty when this seems necessary to protection the peace and security of the international community. The legal basis of this right by the Security Council can be found in Chapter VII of the Chapter of the UN. The Council consists of five permanent member states (US, UK, Russia, China, France) and ten members states that are elected every two years.  
The Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) -  The SPLA started in 1983 as a conspiracy of Southern commanders within the Sudanese army. They wanted to start a guerilla war against the Northern government.  The leader  of the coalition was John Garang. The main source of their frustrations against the government was the continuing under development and neglect of the Southern, Eastern, and Western areas, that were defined as periphery by the government. Moreover, the unfulfilled promises of improvement of the former peace agreement between the North and the South added more fuel to the fire.  They wanted to create a united coalition of those who opposed the Northern Elites. Although in the beginning the coalition was associated with the Dinka ethnicity –even though not all its leaders were Dinka -, this association disappeared within a year. Support for the SPLA grew quick after its foundation, partly because of  the assist they receive from the Ethiopian state. Until 1991 they had much military success. However, because of a regime change in Ethiopia –the new regime aligned with the government instead the coalition -, and an internal split their successes diminished.  In 1994 the organization regained its strength. After the peace agreement in 2005, the SPLA was reformed and became part of Sudanese political institutions. On the ground the fighting continued. The SPLA is now the official army of South-Sudan after its independence in 2011.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights -  The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by United Nation (UN) assembly on 10 December 1948. It was put together by a commission under the leadership of Eleanor Roosevelt. The Declaration is a direct result of the experience of the Second World War and is the first international acknowledgment of human right put on paper. The articles were not obligations (binding law) for the states that signed it, but it has been very influential for the binding International Human Right treaties that were created in the decades after, as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1976) and International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights(1976).
Truth and reconciliation commission -  A truth and reconciliation commission (TRC) is a commission that is tasked to uncover wrongdoings by past regimes and/or non-state actors. A TRC is a form of restorative justice: instead of retribution (through tribunals or national courts) against the offenders, it is a way to seek repair of social connections, of restoring the society and peace. This is done through truth-seeking, where actors from both sides of the conflict can come and give their testimony to the commission. Perhaps one of the most famous examples of such a commission was the TRC in South Africa, set up in 1995 to uncover the truth on what happened during the Apartheid regime.
- Synonyms: TRC
Two-state solution -  The two-state solution would establish an independent Palestinian state alongside Israel — two states for two peoples. In theory, this would win Israel security and allow it to retain a Jewish demographic majority (letting the country remain Jewish and democratic) while granting the Palestinians a state. There are 4 issues that have proven most challenging, however:
  1. There is no consensus about where to draw the borders. generally, it is considered that the border will follow the lines before the Arab-Israeli war of 1967. However, the settlement in the West Bank wille make it difficult to establish that part of the land as part of an independent Palestinian state.
  2. Both sides claim Jerusalem as their capital.
  3. Many Palestinians fled or were expelled during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, their descendants claim they have the right to return to the land that was ‘theirs’. Israel does not want this because it would mean an end to their demographic majority.
  4. Palestinians want the foreign military occupation to end. Israel wants to avoid a group like Hamas to take over the West Bank. It also wants to be able to defend itself against foreign armies and this necessitates Israeli military presence in parts of the West Bank.
For more information: goo.gl/9l9hDS
Undivided Jerusalem capital -  According to the 16 point-plan, Israel’s 3.000 year bond to its capital city is ignored by the UN Human Rights Council. Apparently, Friedman sees a future in which Jerusalem in its entirety serves as capital of Israel.
United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (UNICTR) -  The United Nations–sponsored International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) is seated Arusha, Tanzania. The tribunal was established in 1995 by the United Nations Security Council to prosecute the persons responsible for gross human rights violations, crimes against humanity, war crimes and genocide in Rwanda, between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 1994. Since its establishment, the Tribunal has indicted 93 individuals, including high-ranking military and government officials, politicians, businessmen, as well as religious, militia, and media leaders. The ICTR thus only prosecuted those who bore the greatest responsibility; many others faced trials in Rwanda itself. On 20 December 2012, the ICTR delivered its last trial judgment in the Ngirabatware case. The formal closure of the ICTR is scheduled with the return of the Appeals Chamber’s judgment in its last appeal. From its establishment to its closure, the mandate of the ICTR has been to bring justice to the victims of the genocide and to deter others from committing similar atrocities in the future.
- Synonyms: ICTR, Rwanda Tribunal
United States Security Council declaration on Israel/Palestine 2016 -  In this declaration, the Security Council “reaffirmed that Israel’s establishment of settlements in Palestinian territory occupied since 1967, including East-Jerusalem, had no legal validity, constituting a flagrant violation under international law and a major obstacle to the vision of two States living side-by-side in peace and security, with internationally recognised borders.’ The resolution was adopted by 14 votes, the United States abstained from voting.
Vergangenheitsbewältigung -  German word referring to the process of coming to terms with the past. Vergangenheit: past; Bewaeltigung: overcome. It is used mostly to describe the process of post-war Germany. See more: http://www.dw.com/en/vergangenheitsbew%C3%A4ltigung/a-6614103
Western Wall -  The Western wall is also called Wailing Wall. It is situated in the Old City of Jerusalem and is the only remains of the Second Temple of Jerusalem. It is a place of prayer and pilgrimage sacred to the Jewish people.  
Yazidis -  The Yazidi faith is a mix of a number of different ancient religions, borrowing beliefs from Zoroastrianism, Islam, Christianity and Mithraism, among others. The sect has a long history of persecution, the Yazidis often speak of 72 massacres that have already been perpetrated against the people, ranging from the conquering Mongols to the purges of the Ottomans who had targeted the Yazidis multiple times, including during the Armenian genocide. The existence of the Yazidis became even more delicate after the 2003 US invasion of the country and the ousting of Saddam Hussein. In 2007, coordinated bombings in a Yazidi village in the North of Iraq killed an estimated 800 people. Many of the Christians living in the region fled Iraq to diaspora communities in Europe. Most Yazidis remained in their historical homeland, surrounded by the mountains and their shrines. This was however brought to an end when the Islamic State targeted them in its campaign of religious persecution.
Yom HaShoah -  The full name of the day commemorating the victims of the Holocaust is “Yom Hashoah Ve-Hagevurah”— in Hebrew literally translated as the "Day of (remembrance of) the Holocaust and the Heroism". It is marked on the 27th day in the month of Nisan — a week after the end of the Passover holiday and a week before  Yom Hazikaron (Memorial Day for Israel's fallen soldiers). It marks the anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Since the early 1960's, the sound of a siren on Yom Hashoah stops traffic and pedestrians throughout Israel for two minutes of silent devotion. The siren blows at sundown and once again at 11:00 A.M. on this date. All radio and television programs during this day are connected in one way or another with the Jewish destiny in World War II, including personal interviews with survivors.